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Effect of hydrophobic group in polymer matrix on porosity of organic and carbon aerogels from solCgel polymerization of phenolic resole and methylolated melamine

ע⣺ՓڡMicroporous and Mesoporous Materials 2003,(62): 17C27l
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Rui Zhang 1, Wen Li1, Xiaoyi Liang1, Gangping Wu1, Yonggen Lu1,2,Liang Zhan1, Chunxiang Lu1, Licheng Ling1,2,
1)Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, PR China
2)State Key Lab of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, PR China

Abstract:Organic and carbon aerogels were prepared by solutionCsolCgel polymerization of phenolic resole and methylolated melamine followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis. The hydrophobic group was incorporated into polymer matrix by adding m-cresol in the solutionCsolCgel step and the effect of addition on porosity of organic and carbon aerogels was elucidated by nitrogen adsorption and density measurement. The ratios of m-cresol to phenolic resole (R) were changed from 0/7.5 to 2.5/7.5 while ratios of other components to phenolic resole remained unchanged. It is found that the total pore volumes of organic and carbon aerogels exhibit maxima at 1/7.5 and are determined by the total concentrations of reactants and cumulative volume shrinkages of gels from hydrogels to organic aerogels and from hydrogels to carbon aerogels respectively. The macropores in organic aerogels, developed in supercritical drying process, are determined by gel discrete particlesCgel discrete particles interactions, which can be tuned by the incorporated hydrophobic groups. The micropores in carbon aerogels are generated by evolving volatile compounds in the pyrolysis process. The meso- and macropores in carbon aerogels are determined by (1) meso- and macropores in relevant organic aerogels; (2) volume shrinkages that convert macropores to mesopores and mesopores to micropores; (3) mass loss in pyrolyzing organic aerogels that increases sizes and volume of carbon aerogels; and (4) coarsening that converts mesopores to macropores to reduce interfacial energy. The mesopore size distributions of organic and carbon aerogels exhibit maxima at 1/7.5, which is also related to the actions of the hydrophobic groups. The BET surface areas of organic aerogels and external surface areas of carbon aerogels are determined by sizes and volumes of mesopores and the BET surface areas of carbon aerogels are determined by micro- and mesopores.
Keywords: Carbon aerogels; Pyrolysis; Adsorption; Density; Porosity

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