www.fasfz.com

*Փ*

ѵ81ƪ

**^ʽ϶ՓAַ̽ƌ**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡIIWW2004,36(12):1733-1735l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

EIѽ䛱ģ

ʯ

(BWľˮWԺB 116024 )

**ժ Ҫ: ** ڴλƷǾԏՓďVx׃ԭ]˼ӄSs׃ܵӰ^ʽ϶ՓµĴλƲȫVxܷͨ^s׃^ʽ϶ՓµĻAַó^ʽ϶ՓĻAַ̽ڏՓµַ@һYՓU^ʽoОṩՓ

**PI~:** ^ʽ ϶Փ Vx׃

**The Basic Differential Equation Deductive of the Self-anchored
Suspension Bridge**

SHI Lei ,ZHANG Zhe, LIU Chun-cheng

(Institute of Civil & Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology,

Dalian, 116024)

**Abstract:** Based on the generalized
potential energy variational principal of nonlinear elasticity theory with
large deflection, the incomplete generalized potential energy function with
large deflection is established based on the flexibility theory of three-span
selfCanchored suspension bridge by considering the effect of axial compressive
energy of stiffening girder. By constraint variation, the differential equations
under flexibility theory is closed to the elastic theory vibration have been
derived. It can provide theoretical basis for the static analysis of self-anchored
suspension bridge

**Keywords:** Self-Anchored suspension bridge, flexibility theory,
functional, generalized variation

ѵ82ƪ

**ЂСخa**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺Փڡ?ѧѧ?999,13(4):309-314l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

K ᯿ɷ

㽭Wܹо310027

**ժ Ҫ: ** đßWخaеĂᆖ}MоʹNpʧСеgƬֱQ|cؓɵȲͬخaӰlFڲͬlخaһСֵԼcˌRed,optкeЃɷNƬ÷ʽˌоYڹߵOӋ

**PI~:** pʧ خa

**An analysis on the heat transfer of pin fin array
of minimum entropy generation**

Yaxin Su Zhongyang Luo Kefa Cen Mingjiang Ni

( Institute of Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou,
310027 )

**Abstract:** In this paper
, the thermodynamic concept of entropy generation is applied to study the
heat transfer of an array of pin fins . Beginning with the minimization of
variable irreversibility, an analysis is made on the influence of the parameters
such as pin spacing , pin diameter, the property of heat transfer fluid, heat
duty et al . Its found that all the dimensionless entropy generation number
will have a minimum value under different parameters and a corresponding optimal
Reynolds number Red,opt exists. A comparison of an in-line and staggered pin
fin array is made . The results will be helpful for the design of pin fins
that conserve more available work.

**Keywords:** pin fin array; irreversibility; entropy generation
minimization

ѵ83ƪ

**ηxȲPDAо**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡЇ늙ČW2001,21(2):42-45l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

K ܄ ᯿ɷ

㽭Wܹо310027

**ժ Ҫ: ** SwӑBx3D-PDAŚxȵĚ̃M˜yԇõˎNrlµʸֲоlFxǻȵƫxg鏊Ӻ߅ڸĜɜu^c߅̎ھֲСuȜȵȜҪһЩȜpxЧʽоYڷxķxCͽYһָx??

**PI~:** ŚLx ̃ 3D-PDA

**An experimental study on the gas-solid two-phase flow
in a square cyclone separator with downward gas exit by 3D-PDA**

SU Yaxin ZHOU Jinsong LUO Zhongyang CEN Kefa

( Institute of Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027
)

**Abstract:** Three dimensional
Particle Dynamic Analyzer (3D-PDA) was employed to measure the gas-solid two-phase
flow in a lab-scale square cyclone separator with downward gas exit under
4 cases of different inlet velocity and particle concentration. The particle
used in the test was glass beard of mean diameter 3040mm. It's found that
the center of the flow field deviated from the geometric center of the cyclone.
The flow fields showed a feature of Rankine eddy, i.e. strongly swirling region
in the central part and pseudo-free eddy region of weak swirling intensity
near the cyclone wall. Local vortex existed at the corners where the flow
changed its direction sharply. When the cyclone wall was heated and the suspension
temperature was elevated, it's found that the flow field became more uniform
than that under room-temperature condition. The local vortex at the corners
were weakened and the swirling intensity became poorer which led to a decreased
total mean separation efficiency from about 81% to 76.5%. The results of this
paper provide a further understand of the separation mechanism and guidance
for the optimization of the square cyclone separator structure.

**Keywords:** square cyclone separator with downward; gas exit
gas-solid suspension; 3D-PDA

ѵ84ƪ

**ѭhwFģ͵**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺Փڡ̡2001,21(5):1426-1429,1416l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

K ᯿ɷ

㽭Wܹо310027

**ժ Ҫ: ** wFģµĴԵоYMwFwİٷֱȺwF֮gĚĤȵı_ʽʹ֮cĺ^\ЅԼwϵąϵĶǰģБ{_һϵȱڏɢͱgݗ]ֱݗ͏ɢݗ䵽wFٽwF䵽Ăf^ģӋYPČǺ^fĵģǺ

**PI~:** ѭh ģ

**Modification to the CFB Cluster-Renewal Heat Transfer
Model**

Yaxin Su Zhongyang Luo Kefa Cen

( Institute of Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027
)

**Abstract:** Based on the Cluster
Renewal Model of the particle motion in a CFB riser, the authors developed
a revised heat transfer model, which introduced the latest research results
of the hydrodynamics of the suspension flow in CFB. This model divided the
heat transfer into two parts, which are due to the transient heat conduction
by the covered clusters and the convection between the uncovered wall and
the dispersed phase. Radiation at high temperature was regarded as being additive.
The fraction of the covered wall by clusters and the thickness of the gas
gap between clusters and wall were revised by a new formula, which is a function
of the operating condition and the particle properties. The Radiation between
the dispersed phase and the uncovered wall included not only the direct radiation
to the uncovered wall, but also the radiation to the clusters and then reflected
to the uncovered wall. The model results showed good agreement with the published
experimental data, which proved the modification was reasonable.

**Keywords:** circulating fluidized bed heat transfer model modification

ѵ85ƪ

**sͷxȱ̓gĂՓģ**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡЇ늙ČW20012001,2112:100-104l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

K1 2 ᯿ɷ2

1|AWhƌWčWԺϺ2000512㽭Wܹо310027

**ժ Ҫ: ** sͷxȵĂˌyԇ,ˌY,MһģMՓоһӋxȱƽϵՓģԓģĲֽMɣwǷBwݗ͟ԭݗ?ͱՆ漜ZĵȅsWv[ɣՆĵcѥ̵ĴȺͱՆ沶ĿςH̺ͱՆĽѥȅs?ģӋƽϵcǺģͽYܱwȺwײٶȵӰ^Ŀǰ@ɂ߀cMٶȺ͝P

**PI~:** sͷx; ģ

**A theoretical wall-to-suspension heat transfer model
for square-shaped cyclone separator**

Yaxin Su1 Zhongyang Luo2 Kefa Cen2

( 1: College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University,
Shanghai, 200051; 2: Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou, 310027 )

**Abstract:** Experimental test
on the suspension-to-wall heat transfer in a water/stream-cooled square-shaped
cyclone separator, which was developed for large compact CFB boilers was conducted
and the results were analyzed. Based on the experiment, a theoretical study
on the heat transfer model was carried out and a model to calculate the mean
heat transfer coefficient was established. The heat transfer model of this
paper consists 4 components: gas convection, particle unsteady heat conduction,
particle radiation and flue-gas radiation. The particle unsteady heat conduction
includes heat conduction during the particle-wall elastic impact and the transient
heat conduction of the collected particles when they fall down along the wall
surface. The surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient calculated by this
model showed good agreement with the experimental data. Model results showed
the particle concentration near the wall and the impact velocity of particle-to-wall
had much effect on the heat transfer, while these two parameters can not be
related to the inlet particle concentration and velocity.

**Keywords:** square-shaped cyclone separator; heat transfer
model

ѵ86ƪ

**LxȚ̃Եо**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺Փڡ܄̡2002,172:147-150l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

K1 ᯿ɷ2 2

1|AWhƌWčWԺϺ2000512㽭Wܹо310027

**ժ Ҫ: ** SwӑBx3D-PDAŚLxȚ̃MˌоČ}ٶwĄȵȵķֲӑՓLxȵӾRankineucĲ֞鏊Ɯu^߅ڸǜɜu^߅̎w/gײĜʌ\ʹw}ӏܺ;ֲ߅Ǹȡ^ֵ@˚^ɷxpʧҪ^֮һ߅wxҪԭ}ӏw͚\ӵĄоYYṩ˻AĔֵģMоṩˌ

**PI~:** Śx ̃\ SwӑBx3D-PDA

**Experimental study on the turbulent characteristics
of the gas-solid suspension in a square cyclone separator**

Yaxin Su1 Kefa Cen2 Zhongyang Luo2

( 1: College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University,
Shanghai, 200051; 2: Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou, 310027 )

**Abstract:**Three-dimensional
Particle Dynamics Analyzer was employed to study the gas-solid flow in a square-shaped
cyclone separator which was designed for large CFB application. Distribution
of flow vector, fluctuating velocity, turbulent kinetic energy ,turbulent
intensity and particle concentration were discussed. The swirling flow inside
the cyclone showed the Rankine vortex characteristics, i e, strong swirling
vortex at the central region of the cross-section and weak swirling quasi-free
vortex near the wall. The quasi-laminar motion of particles at the corners
due to particle-particle/wall collision enhanced the turbulent movement there,
which led to the local peak value of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent
intensity. The corner is one of the major region to cause pressure drop because
the suspension at the corners consumed more energy of the flow. The corners
were found to be beneficial to particle separation mainly because the strong
fluctuating flow consumed much of the kinetic energy of both the particle
and gas.

**Keywords:** square-shaped cyclone separator; heat transfer
model

ѵ87ƪ

**LxwֲԵČо**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡȼƌWcg2002,8(3):199-201l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

K1 2 ᯿ɷ2

1|AWhƌWčWԺϺ2000512㽭Wܹо310027

**ժ Ҫ: ** SwӑBx3D-PDALxȵăM˜yԇõwȺķֲMڸ߶ȵĽxMڵǰ̎w@طwڷxвĽwֲeڷxǰǸwһЩǰǸw^?Ũ_ֲĲvf˂Roķֲaχ?

**PI~:** Lxwֲ3D-PDAyԇ

**Experimental Study on the Particle Distribution in
a Square Cyclone Separator**

SU Yaxin1 LUO Zhongyang2 CEN Kefa2

( 1: College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University,
Shanghai, 200051; 2: Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou, 310027 )

**Abstract:**A 3 dimensional
particle dynamic analyzer (3D-PDA) was employed to measure the gas-solid suspension
flow in a lab-scale square cyclone separator with both downward exhaust exit
and solid discharge. The particle concentration and diameter distribution
at 2 sections were presented in this paper. At the upper part, e.g., at the
section that is half of the inlet height from the separator top, the particle
diameter at the front-right corner facing the inlet was found oberviusly larger
than those at any other position. The particle diameter showed little difference
at the section at the mid-height of the separator, while the particle concentration
showed a little higher at the left-front corner and a little lower at the
right-front corner. The particle concentration distribution was against particle
fluctuating velocity.

**Keywords:** square cyclone; separator particle distribution;
3D-PDA measurement

ѵ88ƪ

**Proton beam fabrication
of nickel stamps for nanoimprint lithography**

dӢZՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺Փ*Nuclear Instruments and Methods
in Physics Research B *231 (2005) 407C412l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

K. Ansari , P.G. Shao(), J.A. van Kan, A.A. Bettiol, F. Watt

Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road,
Singapore 117542, Singapore

**Abstract:**Nickel stamps with
micro and nano-scale relief features on their surfaces have been fabricated
using proton beam writing coupled with nickel sulfamate electroplating. A
focused beam of sub-micron 2.0 MeV protons was used to direct-write 3D patterns
into spin coated PMMA resist, and a single step nickel sulfamate plating process
has been used to produce metallic negatives from these patterns. The fabricated
metallic stamps exhibit high aspect ratio surface patterns with smooth and
vertical side-walls. Nano-indentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements
of the features on the surface of the stamps indicate a hardness and side-wall
roughness of 5 GPa and 7 nm respectively. Using nanoimprint lithography, the
stamps fabricated using proton beam writing and electroplating have been successfully
used to replicate patterns into PMMA.

**Keywords:** Nanoimprint lithography; Proton beam writing; Stamps;
Electroplating; High aspect ratio

ѵ89ƪ

**Fabrication of a
free standing resolution standard for focusing MeV ion beams to sub 30 nm
dimensions**

dӢՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺Փ*Nuclear Instruments and Methods
in Physics Research B* 231 (2005) 170C175l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

J.A. van Kan a,*, P.G. Shao() a, P. Molter b, M. Saumer b, A.A.
Bettiol a,

T. Osipowicz a, F. Watt a

a Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University
of Singapore, 2 Science Dr 3,

Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542, Singapore

b University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern, Location Zweibru cken, Department
Microsystems Technology,

Amerikastrasse 1, D-66482 Zweibru cken, Germany

**Abstract:**With recent advances
in nuclear microscopy, proton beam writing and the recent development of MeV
ion nano probe facilities it is becoming increasingly important to have resolution
standards with a high degree of side wall verticality. We present here a way
of producing a high quality free standing resolution standards which can be
used for high beam current applications like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry
(RBS), particle induced X-ray emissions (PIXE), and low beam current applications
such as secondary electron emission, scanning transmission ion icroscopy (STIM)
and ion beam induced current (IBIC). These standards allow rapid focusing
of MeV ion beams for high resolution nuclear microscopy applications as well
as proton beam writing, where knowledge of the exact beam size is vital to
guarantee reproducibility in writing nanostructures. This new standard has
been used to measure a one-dimensional beam pro?le with 1 MeV protons and
gave a FWHM of 29.2 nm which is the smallest value reported for MeV protons
in STIM mode.

**Keywords:** Proton beam writing; Direct write; Nuclear microscopy;
Resolution standard

ѵ90ƪ

**}_ˇڱĤƂеđ**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡտƌWcgW200424()33-37l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

EIѽ䛱ģ

wx և J r

BWϸԇc | B 116024

**ժ Ҫ** ľCˇ}_ˇ늻x僺ʹſ؞Rеđ}_ˇ늻x僃wĤYƽMòͳeضȵҪ늻Rx僸ߵxʞ}_ˇṩõđ×l}_ˇڱĤƂеđǰMչ

**PI~** 늻x }_ˇ ͜سe

**ABSTRACT** The application of pulse technique on arc ion plating
and magnetron sputtering is summarized in the article. Pulse technique plays
an important role in providing reduced marcroparticles pollution, enhancing
adhesion between film and substrate, improving surface morphology and decreasing
deposition temperature. Arc ion plating or magnetron sputtering provides the
best application condition for pulse technique. Finally, prospect is given
to the application foreground of pulse technique in film deposition.

**KEY WORDS **arc ion plating, pulse technique, low temperature
deposition

ѵ91ƪ

**}_ƫ늻xTi/TiN{ӱĤ@ӲȵӰ**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡٌW200541101106-1110l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

wx1և1, 21, 2J1r1, 3

1 BWϸԇcB116024

2 BWϵB116024

3 ЇƌWԺо110016

**ժ Ҫ** }_ƫ늻x僷ڸ䓻wϳeTi/TiN{ӱĤOӋ}_ƫ늅}_ƫTi/TiN{ӱĤ@ӲȵӰYƫ}_ƫֵռձȺlʣ͎΅{ںڱȣ}_ƫֵӰ@ӲȵҪeˇ}_ƫֵ900VռձȞ50%lʞ30
kHzrĤӲȿɸ_34.1GPa˕rĤ{ڞ84nmTiNTiԪӺȷքe71nm13nmڱĤеĆΌӺ^{׳ߴďЧδwFڱĤӲȵؕIӲȵҪc}_ƫˇ}_ƫֵĤMĸP

**PI~**}_ƫ늻xTi/TiN{ӱĤ@Ӳ

EFFECT OF PULSED BIAS ON MICROHARDNESS OF TI/TIN MULTILAYER FILMS DEPOSITED BY ARC ION PLATING

ZHAO Yanhui 1), LIN Guoqiang 1, 2) , LI Xiaona 1, 2) , DONG
Chuang 1) ,WEN Lishi 1, 3)

1) State Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron
Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024

2) Physics Department, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024

3) Institute of Metals Research, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang
110016

Correspondent: LIN Guoqiang, professor, Tel: (0411)84708380-8301, Email: [email protected]

Supported by National High Technical Research and Development of Programme
of China (2002AA302507)

**ABSTRACT** Ti/TiN nano-multilayer films were
deposited on high-speed-steel (HSS) substrates using arc ion plating, in which
orthogonal experiments were used to analyze the effects of the electrical
parameters of pulsed bias on microhardness of Ti/TiN multilayer films. The
results show that of all the pulsed bias related parameters including pulsed
bias magnitude, duty ratio and frequency and the geometry parameters including
modulation period and period ratio, pulsed bias magnitude is the major factor
affecting microhardness of the multilayer films. The maximum microhardness
of 34.1GPa was obtained with pulsed bias magnitude 900V, duty ratio 50% and
frequency 30kHz, and the responding modulation period is 84nm, the unit set
layer thickness of TiN and Ti are 71nm and 13nm, respectively. Due to the
large unit set layer thickness used in the present experiments, the nano-scale
strengthening effect is not obviously manifested. The increasing of the microhardness
correlates in a significant manner with refining film microstructure resulted
from the pulsed bias parameters especially the pulsed bias magnitude.

**KEYWORDS** pulsed bias, arc ion plating, Ti/TiN nano-multilayer
films, microhardness

ѵ92ƪ

**^ʽOӋcWܷ**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡBWW,2003,43(2):202-206l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

EIѽ䛱ģ

ʯ ̴

BWоB|116024

**ժҪ**BнʯȫL198m24m+60m+24m^ʽЇ˷N͵ĘČYʽ˽Bͨ^Ӌ㌍ԵóՓmСȵ^ʽOӋӋӋSYc^ʽĲeǺֵܴ10ԃȺͻտs׃Ӱ푱^@cˮƽӄͲ]տs׃Ӱ푵ӋY^ֵ20ýYՓͬOӋоһąrֵ

**PI~** W ^ʽ

THE DESIGN AND MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSES OF THE CONCRETE SELF-ANCHORED SUSPENSION BRIDGE

ZHANG Zhe SHI
Lei LIU Chun-cheng TAN Yong-gang

(Bridge Institute of Dalian University of Technologe, Liaoning ,Dalian,116024,China)

**Abstract:** Jinshitan Bridge is the first self-anchored suspension
bridge in China. Its total length is 198m,and the length of main span is(24+60+24)m.
Some beneficial exploration and research is presented about the structure
form design theory and internal force characteristics of the Jinshitan Bridge
in this paper. Through computing the examples,the variational law of concrete
self-anchored suspension bridges internal force is analyzed when the camber
and the rise-span ratio are changed . And the law of the internal force affected
by creep is also analyzed. Some conclusion can be consulted for designing
and researching of this type of bridge.

**Key words:** concretesuspension bridgesmechanical performanceself-anchored

ѵ93ƪ

**ǾSCo**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡBWW,2004,44(3):421-424l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

EIѽ䛱ģ

ʯ

BWо, |B116024

**ժҪ**ȑY@ĎηǾО,ҴڲγߴSCȌ|^СȅԪMд_ԵĎηǾԷȻ푑淨MзǾSCoᘌһӋQd²γߴSCԌλƵӰYYSCԵӰʮ@

**PI~** 푑淨 ηǾ SC

ЈD̖U448.27 īIRaA

Nonlinear stochastic static analysis of long span suspension bridge

SHI Lei LIU Chun-Cheng
ZHANG Zhe DU Peng-Juan

(Department of civil engineering, Dalian university of technology ,Dalian
116024)

**Abstract:** Geometrical nonlinear behaviors are very significant
in long span suspension bridges, and the uncertainties of material, physical
dimension etc greatly influence the structural response of suspension bridge.
Beam element with small EI is used for the certain analysis of suspension
bridge. Based on the Response Surface approach, the non-linearity of suspension
bridge is researched in this paper. Finally, the mid-span deflection of a
long span suspension bridge under vertical live load is analyzed when the
elastic module of cable and hangers are assumed to be random correlated variables.
Numerical results show that the randomness has a significant effect on the
mid-span deflection.

**Key words:** Suspension bridge; Response Surface approach;
Geometric non-linearity; Random

ѵ94ƪ

**^ʽİlչC**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺Փڡ2003,1:5-9l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

,]i,ʯ,

BWо, |B116024

**ժҪ**B^ʽcڇİlչr,cB҇䓽^ʽMеOӋcо,Yχȹ̌HurԓN,䓽ϵăȱclչg

**PI~**;^wϵ;C;

ѵ95ƪ

*J. Mater. Sci. Technol.*
2005,21(3):423-426

Yanhui ZHAO wx1)+
, Guoqiang LIN1), Lishi WEN1, 2) and Chuang DONG1)

1)State Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron
beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China

2)Institute of Metals Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016,
China

**Abstract:**It
has been reported that application of pulsed biases in arc ion plating could
effectively eliminate droplet particles. The present paper aims at experimental
verification of a physical model proposed previously by us which is based
on particle charging and repulsion in the pulsed plasma sheath. An orthogonal
experiment was designed for this purpose, using the electrical parameters
of the pulsed bias for the deposition of TiN films on stainless steel substrates.
The effect of these parameters on the amount and the size distribution of
the particles were analyzed, and the results provided sufficient evidence
for the physical model.

**KEY WORDS:** Arc ion plating, Pulsed bias, TiN film, Droplet-particles

ѵ96ƪ

**NURBS澫_MϷо**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡCе̌Wİ棩,2004,40(3):10-14l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

O Ǻ

BWCе̌WԺ B 116024

**ժҪ**һģ͵NURBS潨ģ·Ľ݆OӋgcƔϵн݆ƤAõܷӳcƻĻ\ÅУgoһNұ^ЧĻ慢ɴüәС㷨F˻ڵNURBSľ_MHYC˷ČԼ_ǳmģǻģ

**PI~**M ǾBӗl Ƥ CAD/CAM

**RESEARCH
ON THE METHOD OF ACCURATE NURBS SURFACE FITTING TO SCATTERED POINTS**

Sun Yu-Wen Wu Hong-Ji Liu Jian

( Dalian University of Technology)

**Abstract**A
NURBS surface fitting method with tight tolerance for wrap-around models is
presented. Using the sectional design technique, two primary boundaries and
some interior sectional curves are extracted. Then a base surface is constructed
by skinning these curves. By means of the method of base surface parameterization,
an accurate and smooth fitting surface is finally implemented. The practical
example demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method.

**Key words:** Surface fitting Non-uniform rational B-spline
Skinning CAD/CAM

ѵ97ƪ

**xɢӲַĆԪ**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡÔWW200223(6)551-557l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

1 2 d1

1. ϺͨWWϵ2000302. BWWϵ116024

**ժҪ**ĽoˏWxɢӲַxɢʽoԓĎׂ叝Ԫƽ߅ΆԪͨ^ĿxɢӲַеxɢʽԪλƺķӳxɢӲַoՓԪλƺǷf{λƺxɢʽеõʮֺ٬FfxɢӲַxɢʽһNܺ܃xɢʽ

**PI~**xɢӲַԪʴ_٬F

**Element
Functions of Discrete Operator Difference Method**

Tian Zhongxu1 Tang
Limin2 Liu Zhengxing1

1. Dept. of Eng. Mechanics, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai 200030, China

2.Dept. of Eng. Mechanics, Dalian Univ. Of Technology, Dalian 116024, China

**Abstract:
**the discrete scheme called discrete operator difference for differential
equations is given in this paper. Several difference elements for plate bending
problems and plane problems are given. by investigating which, the ability
of the discrete forms expressing to the element functions is talked about.
In discrete operator difference method, the displacements of the elements
can be reproduced exactly in the discrete forms whether the displacements
are conforming or not. According to this point, discrete operator difference
method is a method with good performance.

**Key words: **discrete operator difference methodelement function
reproduce exactly

ѵ98ƪ

**z㷨ĮaƷ˙CCADо**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡӋCcá2003,39(33):35-37,105l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

Ф L

IWIOӋо x·127̖559 710072

Gϼ

ݎWIOӋϵ K 221000

**ժ Ҫ**aƷΑB˙COӋ}ĸOӋԔOӋ֞齻ģʽOӋPΑBOӋͪΑBOӋoϵČMOӋz㷨ĻԭᘌͬӴ˙COӋ}cքeMоwоӆĽQ侎acmȺĘ췽ʽ˻OӋ/һw˙CMOӋ^ԭϵy

**PI~**aƷOӋ ˙ČW z㷨 CAD

**Product Ergonomics CAD
Based on Genetic Algorithms**

Liu Xiaojian Li Guiqin Lu Changde

Industrial Design Institute, Northwestern Polytechnical University

Liang Yanxia

Industrial Design Institute,Xuzhou Teachers University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu

**Abstract:**
In this paper, products ergonomical design process was broken down to three
periods: interactivity design, dimension design and individual form design.
Based on Evolutionary design theory and genetic algorithms, ergonomical design
problems were studied respectively for each period with encoding techniques
and fitness function construction. And the proto system of the design process
based on Design-Manufacture integrity system was also introduced.

**Keywords:** product design, ergonomics, genetic algorithms,
CAD

ѵ99ƪ

**aƷs˙ČWOӋо**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺ՓڡӋCcо2004,21(12):36-38l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

Ф L

710072 IWIOӋϵ

**ժ Ҫ**aƷΑBOӋЏs˙ČWܵOӋ}M˷оˮaƷ˙COӋĽQz㷨ߌFˌsΑBⷽSCԼͨ^MԄurcxęC˻Unigraphicsƽ_˙COӋ^̙Ccԭϵy

**PI~**aƷOӋ ˙ČW CAD ЈD̖TP391.72

**A Study on the Ergonomics
CAD of Complex Surface Design in Products
**

Liu Xiaojian Yu Suihuai Lu Changde

(Northwestern Polytechnical University)

**Abstract:**
The Ergonomics design methods of complex surface design in products were analyzed
in this paper. Genetic Algorithms were used to search solutions to complex
surface and automatically evaluate and select the solutions. The proto-system
was established on the Unigraphics platform.

**Keywords: **product design, ergonomics, CAD, surface, genetic
algorithms

ѵ100ƪ

**Solidworks˙ČWCAD_l**

dՓȫՈc朽

ע⣺Փڡ ӋCc 2004,40(25):104-106,119l

ʹՈעՓĳ̎

Ф[1] Gϼ[2] L[1]

[1]IWIOӋϵ710072

[2]ݎWIOӋϵK221000

**ժ Ҫ**aƷΑBOӋЏs˙ČWܵOӋ}M˷оˮaƷ˙COӋĽQz㷨ߌFˌsΑBⷽSCԼͨ^MԄurcxęC˻Unigraphicsƽ_˙COӋ^̙Ccԭϵy

**PI~**aƷOӋ ˙ČW CAD ЈD̖TP391.72

**A Study on the Ergonomics
CAD of Complex Surface Design in Products
**

Liu Xiaojian Yu Suihuai Lu Changde

(Northwestern Polytechnical University)

**Abstract:**
The Ergonomics design methods of complex surface design in products were analyzed
in this paper. Genetic Algorithms were used to search solutions to complex
surface and automatically evaluate and select the solutions. The proto-system
was established on the Unigraphics platform.

**Keywords: **product design, ergonomics, CAD, surface, genetic
algorithms

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